This article is about the unit of mass. For the unit of force, see Pound-force. For the unit of volume, see Fluid ounce. For all other uses, see Ounce (disambiguation). The ounce (abbreviated: oz, the old Italian word onza, now spelled oncia) is a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of the imperial and United States customary systems. Its size can vary from system to system. The most commonly used ounces used today are the international avoirdupois ounce and the international troy ounce.
Historically, in different parts of the world, at different points in time, and for different applications, the ounce (or its translation) has referred to broadly similar but different standards of mass (or weight, before the distinction between weight and mass developed). Some of these other ounces are described below.
|ounce variant||mass in grams||mass in grains|
|International avoirdupois ounce||28.349523||437.5|
|International troy ounce||31.1034768||480|
|Maria Theresa ounce||28.0668 Expression error: Unexpected round operator.|
|Dutch metric ounce||100 Expression error: Unexpected round operator.|
|Chinese metric ounce||50 Expression error: Unexpected round operator.|
Note: The grain values for the Maria Theresa, Dutch and Chinese
International avoirdupois ounce
In 1958 the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed to define the international avoirdupois pound to be exactly 0.45359237 kilograms. Consequently, since 1958, the international avoirdupois ounce is exactly 28.349523 grams by definition.
The ounce is commonly used as a unit of mass in the United States. While imperial units have been officially abolished in the United Kingdom, the ounce remains a familiar unit, especially amongst older people.
International troy ounce
For historical measurement of gold,
- a fine ounce is a troy ounce of 99.5% (".995") pure gold
- a standard ounce is a troy ounce of 22 carat gold, 91.66% pure (11 "fine ounces" plus one ounce of alloy material)
The obsolete apothecaries' ounce (abbreviated ℥) equivalent to the troy ounce, was formerly used by apothecaries (now called pharmacists or chemists).
Maria Theresa ounce
"Maria Theresa ounce" was once introduced in Ethiopia and some European countries, which was equal to the weight of one Maria Theresa thaler, or 28.0668 g. Both the weight and the value are the definition of one "Birr", still in use in present-day Ethiopia and formerly in Eritrea.
The Dutch have redefined their ounce (in Dutch, ons) as 100 grams.   Also the Avoirdupois pound (in Dutch pond) was redefined to 500 grams. This was adopted along with the introduction of the metric system and remains in informal usage (mostly in cookery and groceries). The Dutch's metric values, such as 1 ons = 100 grams, is inherited, adopted and taught in Indonesia since elementary school. It is also formally written in Indonesian national dictionary ( Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia ) and elementary school's formal manual book.
Notes and references