Bradycardia risk factors

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Bradycardia Microchapters



Historical Perspective




Differentiating Bradycardia from other Conditions

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray




Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:


Common risk factors in the development of bradycardia include congenital heart disease, infection of the heart tissue, heart surgery, hypothyroidism or other metabolic condition, damage caused by a heart attack or heart disease, electrolyte imbalance in the blood, obstructive sleep apnea, inflammatory diseases (rheumatic fever or lupus).

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of bradycardia include:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Less Common Risk Factors

Less common risk factors in the development of bradycardia include:


  1. Barrett TW, Abraham RL, Jenkins CA, Russ S, Storrow AB, Darbar D (2012). "Risk factors for bradycardia requiring pacemaker implantation in patients with atrial fibrillation". Am J Cardiol. 110 (9): 1315–21. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.06.037. PMC 3470776. PMID 22840846.
  2. Van Gelder IC, Groenveld HF, Crijns HJ, Tuininga YS, Tijssen JG, Alings AM; et al. (2010). "Lenient versus strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation". N Engl J Med. 362 (15): 1363–73. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001337. PMID 20231232. Review in: Evid Based Med. 2010 Oct;15(5):147-8 Review in: Ann Intern Med. 2010 Aug 17;153(4):JC2-4
  3. Dorian P (2010). "Rate control in atrial fibrillation". N Engl J Med. 362 (15): 1439–41. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1002301. PMID 20231233.
  4. Essebag V, Hadjis T, Platt RW, Pilote L (2003). "Amiodarone and the risk of bradyarrhythmia requiring permanent pacemaker in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and prior myocardial infarction". J Am Coll Cardiol. 41 (2): 249–54. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(02)02709-2. PMID 12535818.
  5. Essebag V, Reynolds MR, Hadjis T, Lemery R, Olshansky B, Buxton AE; et al. (2007). "Sex differences in the relationship between amiodarone use and the need for permanent pacing in patients with atrial fibrillation". Arch Intern Med. 167 (15): 1648–53. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.15.1648. PMC 2424189. PMID 17698688.
  6. Sweeney MO, Bank AJ, Nsah E, Koullick M, Zeng QC, Hettrick D; et al. (2007). "Minimizing ventricular pacing to reduce atrial fibrillation in sinus-node disease". N Engl J Med. 357 (10): 1000–8. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa071880. PMID 17804844.
  7. Cheung, Christopher C.; Martyn, Alan; Campbell, Norman; Frost, Shaun; Gilbert, Kenneth; Michota, Franklin; Seal, Douglas; Ghali, William; Khan, Nadia A. (2015). "Predictors of Intraoperative Hypotension and Bradycardia". The American Journal of Medicine. 128 (5): 532–538. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.11.030. ISSN 0002-9343.

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