Hematuria classification On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hematuria classification
Hematuria may be classified according to its source into 3 groups: extrarenal hematuria, nonglomerular renal hematuria, and glomerular hematuria. Hematuria may be classified according to the visibility of hematuria into 5 groups: Visible hematuria, initial hematuria, terminal hematuria, complete hematuria, and non-visible hematuria. Hematuria may be classified according to the duration into 2 groups: transient hematuria, and persistent or significant hematuria. Hematuria may also be classified according to the pathophysiology.
Hematuria may be classified according to its source into 3 groups: extrarenal hematuria, nonglomerular renal hematuria, and glomerular hematuria.
- Extrarenal hematuria:: More than 60% of cases of hematuria occur from a source outside the kidney.The most common nonmalignant causes of hematuria outside the kidney are infections such as cystitis , prostatitis , and urethritis .
- Nonglomerular renal hematuria: Renal stones and pyelonephritis will present with episodic pain and pyelonephritis with fever. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) will usually present with recurring gross hematuria. Although the degree of proteinuria correlates with the severity and progression of renal disease, microscopic hematuria does not have such correlation.
- Glomerular hematuria: IgA nephropathy is the most common cause of isolated glomerular microscopic hematuria (without significant proteinuria). It is usually asymptomatic and often is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
Hematuria may be classified according to the visibility of hematuria into 5 groups: Visible hematuria, initial hematuria, terminal hematuria, complete hematuria, and non-visible hematuria.
- Visible hematuria: Also known as Frank hematuria/ Macroscopic hematuria/ Gross hematuria. Visible hematuria can be visualized and is also known as frank, gross or macroscopic hematuria.
- Initial hematuria: May indicate urethral pathology
- Terminal hematuria: Hematuria at the end of the stream that comes from the proximal urethra (bladder neck/prostate).
- Complete hematuria: Hematuria throughout the entire stream suggests bladder, ureteric or renal pathology.
- Non-visible hematuria: Non-visible hematuria encompasses dipstick and microscopic hematuria.
Hematuria may be classified according to the duration into 2 groups: transient hematuria, and persistent or significant hematuria.
- Transient hematuria: A single urinalysis with hematuria is common and can result from menstruation, viral illness, allergy, exercise, fever, or mild trauma.
- Persistent or Significant hematuria: >3 RBCs/HPF on three urinalyses, a single urinalysis with >100 RBCs, or gross hematuria.
Hematuria may be classified according to the pathophysiology.
- Common causes of microscopic hematuria may be classified broadly according to the underlying etiology as glomerular and non glomerular, as follows:
|Common Causes of Renal||Common Causes of Non-Renal Hematuria|
|Glomerular hematuria||Non-glomerular renal hematuria||Upper urinary tract||Lower urinary Tract|
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- Pan, Cynthia G. (2006). "Evaluation of Gross Hematuria". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 53 (3): 401–412. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2006.03.002. ISSN 0031-3955.
- Lee JY, Chang JS, Koo KC, Lee SW, Choi YD, Cho KS (August 2013). "Hematuria grading scale: a new tool for gross hematuria". Urology. 82 (2): 284–9. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2013.04.048. PMID 23896092.