Streptomyces clavuligerus

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Streptomyces clavuligerus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Family: Streptomycetaceae
Genus: Streptomyces
Species: S. clavuligerus
Binomial name
Streptomyces clavuligerus
Higgens & Kastner 1971

Streptomyces clavuligerus is a species of Gram positive bacterium that produces clavulanic acid.[1]

S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 (NRRL 3585, DSM 738) was first described by Higgens and Kastner who isolated it from a South American soil sample.[2] Its name refers to the shape of its spore-bearing hyphal branches: clavula in Latin means little club and the suffix -igerus means bearing. S. clavuligerus spores are gray to grayish green.[2]

S. clavuligerus produces over 20 secondary metabolites, including many beta-lactam antibiotics such as clavulanic acid, cephamycin C, deacetoxycephalosporin C, penicillin N (an intermediate in cephamycin C pathway) and at least four other clavams.[3][4] Non-β-lactam antibiotics include holomycin and an antibiotic complex, MM 19290, related to tunicamycin;[5] a beta-lactamase-inhibitory protein (BLIP) has also been described.[6]

Another important characteristic of S. clavuligerus is that it is not able to use glucose as a carbon source, because it lacks a glucose transport system.[7][8]

It also possesses all the enzymes of the urea cycle, which is unusual for a prokaryote, although it is not clear if the urea cycle is functional.[9]


  1. Reading C, Cole M (1977). "Clavulanic acid: a beta-lactamase-inhiting beta-lactam from Streptomyces clavuligerus". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 11 (5): 852–7. PMID 879738.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Higgens CE, Kastner RE (1971). "Streptomyces clavuligerus sp. nov., a beta-lactam antibiotic producer". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 21: 326&ndash, 31.
  3. Nabais AMA, Dafonseca MMR (1995). "The Effect of Solid Medium Composition on Growth and Sporulation of Streptomyces-Clavuligerus - Spore Viability During Storage at +4-Degrees-C". Biotechnology Techniques. 9: 361&ndash, 4.
  4. Tahlan K, Anders C, Jensen S (2004). "The paralogous pairs of genes involved in clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis are differently regulated in Streptomyces clavuligerus". J Bacteriol. 186 (18): 6286–97. PMID 15342599.
  5. Baggaley K, Brown A, Schofield C (1997). "Chemistry and biosynthesis of clavulanic acid and other clavams". Nat Prod Rep. 14 (4): 309–33. PMID 9281835.
  6. Doran J, Leskiw B, Aippersbach S, Jensen S (1990). "Isolation and characterization of a beta-lactamase-inhibitory protein from Streptomyces clavuligerus and cloning and analysis of the corresponding gene". J Bacteriol. 172 (9): 4909–18. PMID 2203736.
  7. Aharonowitz Y, Demain A (1978). "Carbon catabolite regulation of cephalosporin production in Streptomyces clavuligerus". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 14 (2): 159–64. PMID 697343.
  8. Garcia-Dominguez M, Martin J, Liras P (1989). "Characterization of sugar uptake in wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, which is impaired in glucose uptake, and in a glucose-utilizing mutant". J Bacteriol. 171 (12): 6808–14. PMID 2687256.
  9. Template:Cite paper

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