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Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the accumulation of xanthine. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine oxidase.

It was first formally characterized in 1954.[1]


It can be caused by a deficiency of xanthine oxidase, which is an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to uric acid. [2]


Sufferers have unusually high concentrations of xanthine in their blood and urine, which can lead to health problems such as renal failure and xanthine kidney stones, one of the rarest types of kidney stones.


There is no specific treatment beyond maintaining a high fluid intake and avoiding foods that are high in purine.


  1. Dent CE, Philpot GR (1954). "Xanthinuria, an inborn error (or deviation) of metabolism". Lancet. 266 (6804): 182–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(54)91257-X. PMID 13118765.
  2. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O (1997). "Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria". J. Clin. Invest. 99 (10): 2391–7. doi:10.1172/JCI119421. PMC 508078. PMID 9153281.
  • Kojima T., Nishina T., Kitamura M., Hosoya T., Nishioka K. (1984). "Biochemical studies on the purine metabolism of four cases with hereditary xanthinuria". Clin Chim Acta. 137 (2): 189–98. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(84)90179-7. PMID 6423323.

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